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犹太复国主义

犹太民族主义运动,目标是在犹太人的古代故乡巴勒斯坦创立和维持一个犹太民族国家。16和17世纪出现许多「弥赛亚」,努力劝说犹太人「返回」巴勒斯坦。然而,18世纪末这种想法逐渐消失。在东欧的集体迫害是锡安的热爱者来促进犹太农民和工匠定居巴勒斯坦。赫茨尔(Theodor Herzl)认为同化是十分可取的,但监於反犹主义,是不可能实现的。因此,他主张在巴勒斯坦为犹太人建立家园。1897年他在巴塞尔召集第一次犹太复国主义大会。第一次世界大战後,犹太复国主义运动随着「巴尔福宣言」(Balfour Declaration)重拾动力。1914年在巴勒斯坦约有九万犹太人,1933年上升为23.8万人。阿拉伯人坚决反对犹太复国主义,英国人设法调和阿拉伯人与犹太复国主义者的要求,都未成功。犹太复国主义的成就是於1948年建立了以色列。亦请参阅Ben-Gurion, David、Jabotinsky, Vladimir、Irgun Zvai Leumi和Hagana。

Zionism

Jewish nationalism movement with the goal of establishing a Jewish state in Palestine. In the 16th-17th century, a number of “messiahs” tried to persuade the Jews to return to Palestine, but by the late 18th century interest had largely faded. Pogroms in Eastern Europe led to formation of the “Lovers of Zion,” which promoted the settlement of Jewish farmers and artisans in Palestine. In the face of persistent anti-Semitism, Theodor Herzl advocated a Jewish state in Palestine. He held the first Zionist Congress in Basel in 1897. After World War I the movement picked up momentum with the issuing of the Balfour Declaration. The Jewish population in Palestine increased from 90,000 in 1914 to 238,000 in 1933. The Arab population resisted Zionism, and the British tried unsuccessfully to reconcile Jewish and Arab demands. Zionism achieved its goal with the creation of Israel in 1948. See also Alliance Israélite Universelle, David Ben-Gurion, Hagana, Vladimir Jabotinsky, Irgun Zvai Leumi.

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